:: THE CAJON
This percussion instrument, of Afro-Peruvian origins, is used in most coastal variations of the marinera, as well as musica criolla (Creole) and musica negra (Afro-Peruvian) genres in general.
The instrument is crafted from a wooden box which features a soundhole at the back. The musician sits on top and slaps on the front surface with the palms of his hands. Although of simple appearance, the instrument has built up a following outside Peru, including its recent incorporation into flamenco.
:: THE QUENA
This Andean flute is the best-known wind instrument in Peru and dates back to pre-Hispanic times.
It is made of a tube of cane, wood, bone or even plastic, with one end beveled into a mouthpiece.
The quena features five or six soundholes which produces a range of notes, depending on how the performer blows through the flute. Quenas come in different sizes depending on the region.
:: THE CHARANGO
This instrument is modeled along the lines of a classic guitar, although smaller with 10 strings. Its soundbox is made from an armadillo or kirkincho shell, although it is also often made of wood. It is very popular in the southern Andes.
:: THE GUITAR
The most widely-played instrument in Peru. The most common shape is that of the modern Spanish guitar, but Peru features 10 variants on the theme which vary in shape, construction materials and the number of strings. The tuning also varies depending on the area.
The guitar combines with several other instruments according to the musical genre being performed, including the vals criollo, marinera, festejo, huayno, zamacueca, tondero and even chicha.
:: THE QUIJADA
The creative flair of Afro-Peruvians turned the lower jawbone of a donkey or horse into an effective percussion instrument.
It is held in one hand and hit with the other to keep the beat. The unique sound of the quijada is produced by the rattling molars in the jawbone and amplified by the bone structure.